Richard Nixon died on April 22, This is a video produced by the Richard Nixon Foundation to commemorate the 25th anniversary of his death. The word specifically refers to the Watergate Hotel in Washington D. Even today, it is home to former Senator Bob Dole and was once the place where Monica Lewinsky laid low. If it had not been for the alert actions of Frank Wills, a security guard, the scandal may never have erupted. But the chronology of the scandal really begins during , when the burglars were arrested. By , Nixon had been re-elected, but the storm clouds were building. By early , the nation was consumed by Watergate.
His long political career began in when he was elected to the House of Representatives. Nixon served as Vice-President for eight years, then lost the election to John F.
He was vindicated by winning a landslide re-election. He was sworn in for a second term in Janury The first was on April 30, , in which he announced the departure of Dean, Haldeman and Ehrlichman. A more defiant speech was delivered on August 15, Svetlana Markov , SG-1 is sent to investigate why this is. SG-1 and Markov fly to the Russian base and enter the facility. During the search, they discover that all base personnel are dead, seemingly from a nerve gas. After failing to turn off the Russian Stargate, it is discovered that the radio signal from the Nuclear powered reconnaisance drone is keeping the gate open and cannot be shut down from this side.
Markov, Dr. They manage to find Colonel Harold Maybourne in a freezer, but when they take him out, he is miraculously revived, and small, watery alien beings come out of him. The water vapor alien then enters Teal'c, and use him to go to the Stargate. O'Neill attempts to stop him, but Teal'c opens the gate, and the aliens come out of Teal'c and go through the Stargate. Meanwhile, on the other side, it is discovered that the water that has submerged the civilization are actually aliens, the same kind that infected Maybourne.
After the beings go through the Stargate to their homeworld, Markov, Jackson and Carter are sent back to Earth , having had their sub crushed and having been captured by the aliens. The Russian Stargate program is subsequently shut down and Maybourne is arrested. NB: These two events are not shown in the TV broadcast. Carter : There was a minor seismic event that matches the time in our power log exactly. O'Neill : looking at the map Is that Siberia?
Carter : Yes sir. And there's only one explanation I can think of. Jackson : The Russians have a Stargate? Carter : How do you know about the SGC? Markov : I have read extensive files on all of you. O'Neill : The question was: how?
Open the Water Gate
Markov : I learned to read English at the age of 6, it's not difficult. O'Neill : Russian humor That's the way they play it and that's the way we are going to play it. Nixon denied that this constituted an obstruction of justice, as his instructions ultimately resulted in the CIA truthfully reporting to the FBI that there were no national security issues. Nixon urged the FBI to press forward with the investigation when they expressed concern about interference. Before the release of this tape, Nixon had denied any involvement in the scandal.
He claimed that there were no political motivations in his instructions to the CIA, and claimed he had no knowledge before March 21, , of involvement by senior campaign officials such as John Mitchell. Clair , that "the President had lied to the nation, to his closest aides, and to his own lawyers—for more than two years".
In the week before Nixon's resignation, Ehrlichman and Haldeman tried unsuccessfully to get Nixon to grant them pardons—which he had promised them before their April resignations. The release of the "smoking gun" tape destroyed Nixon politically. The ten congressmen who had voted against all three articles of impeachment in the House Judiciary Committee announced they would all support the impeachment article accusing Nixon of obstructing justice when the articles came up before the full House.
Scott and Rhodes were the Republican leaders in the Senate and House, respectively; Goldwater was brought along as an elder statesman. The three lawmakers told Nixon that his support in Congress had all but disappeared. Rhodes told Nixon that he would face certain impeachment when the articles came up for vote in the full House; indeed, by one estimate, no more than 75 representatives were willing to oppose impeachment.
Realizing that he had no chance of staying in office and that public opinion was not in his favor, Nixon decided to resign. In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the Nation. Throughout the long and difficult period of Watergate, I have felt it was my duty to persevere, to make every possible effort to complete the term of office to which you elected me.
In the past few days, however, it has become evident to me that I no longer have a strong enough political base in the Congress to justify continuing that effort. As long as there was such a base, I felt strongly that it was necessary to see the constitutional process through to its conclusion, that to do otherwise would be unfaithful to the spirit of that deliberately difficult process and a dangerously destabilizing precedent for the future….
I would have preferred to carry through to the finish whatever the personal agony it would have involved, and my family unanimously urged me to do so. But the interest of the Nation must always come before any personal considerations. From the discussions I have had with Congressional and other leaders, I have concluded that because of the Watergate matter I might not have the support of the Congress that I would consider necessary to back the very difficult decisions and carry out the duties of this office in the way the interests of the Nation would require. I have never been a quitter.
To leave office before my term is completed is abhorrent to every instinct in my body. But as President, I must put the interest of America first. America needs a full-time President and a full-time Congress, particularly at this time with problems we face at home and abroad. To continue to fight through the months ahead for my personal vindication would almost totally absorb the time and attention of both the President and the Congress in a period when our entire focus should be on the great issues of peace abroad and prosperity without inflation at home.
Therefore, I shall resign the Presidency effective at noon tomorrow. Vice President Ford will be sworn in as President at that hour in this office. The morning that his resignation took effect, the President, with Mrs. Nixon and their family, said farewell to the White House staff in the East Room.
Nixon later wrote that he thought, "As the helicopter moved on to Andrews, I found myself thinking not of the past, but of the future. What could I do now? With Nixon's resignation, Congress dropped its impeachment proceedings. Criminal prosecution was still a possibility both on the federal and state level. He said that the Nixon family's situation "is an American tragedy in which we all have played a part.
It could go on and on and on, or someone must write the end to it. I have concluded that only I can do that, and if I can, I must. Nixon proclaimed his innocence until his death in In his official response to the pardon, he said that he "was wrong in not acting more decisively and more forthrightly in dealing with Watergate, particularly when it reached the stage of judicial proceedings and grew from a political scandal into a national tragedy". Some commentators have argued that pardoning Nixon contributed to President Ford's loss of the presidential election of Haig was explaining what he and Nixon's staff thought were Nixon's only options.
He could try to ride out the impeachment and fight against conviction in the Senate all the way, or he could resign. His options for resigning were to delay his resignation until further along in the impeachment process, to try and settle for a censure vote in Congress, or to pardon himself and then resign. Haig told Ford that some of Nixon's staff suggested that Nixon could agree to resign in return for an agreement that Ford would pardon him. Haig emphasized that these weren't his suggestions. He didn't identify the staff members and he made it very clear that he wasn't recommending any one option over another.
What he wanted to know was whether or not my overall assessment of the situation agreed with his. Next he asked if I had any suggestions as to courses of actions for the President. I didn't think it would be proper for me to make any recommendations at all, and I told him so. Charles Colson pled guilty to charges concerning the Daniel Ellsberg case; in exchange, the indictment against him for covering up the activities of the Committee to Re-elect the President was dropped, as it was against Strachan.
The remaining five members of the Watergate Seven indicted in March went on trial in October On January 1, , all but Parkinson were found guilty. In , the U. Court of Appeals ordered a new trial for Mardian; subsequently, all charges against him were dropped. Haldeman, Ehrlichman, and Mitchell exhausted their appeals in Ehrlichman entered prison in , followed by the other two in Since Nixon and many senior officials involved in Watergate were lawyers, the scandal severely tarnished the public image of the legal profession.
The Watergate scandal resulted in 69 government officials being charged and 48 being found guilty, including: . To defuse public demand for direct federal regulation of lawyers as opposed to leaving it in the hands of state bar associations or courts , the American Bar Association ABA launched two major reforms.
In it replaced it with the Model Rules of Professional Conduct. Its preamble contains an emphatic reminder that the legal profession can remain self-governing only if lawyers behave properly. The requirement remains in effect. On June 24 and 25, , Nixon gave secret testimony to a grand jury.
Aided by the Public Citizen Litigation Group , the historian Stanley Kutler , who has written several books about Nixon and Watergate and had successfully sued for the public release of the Nixon White House tapes ,  sued for release of the transcripts of the Nixon grand jury testimony. On July 29, , U. District Judge Royce Lamberth granted Kutler's request, saying historical interests trumped privacy, especially considering that Nixon and other key figures were deceased, and most of the surviving figures had testified under oath, have been written about, or were interviewed.
The transcripts were not immediately released pending the government's decision on whether to appeal. In June the U.
Add Your Comment
Department of Justice wrote the court that it would not object to their release with some exceptions. According to Thomas J. Johnson, a professor of journalism at University of Texas at Austin , Secretary of State Henry Kissinger predicted during Nixon's final days that history would remember Nixon as a great president and that Watergate would be relegated to a "minor footnote". When Congress investigated the scope of the president's legal powers, it belatedly found that consecutive presidential administrations had declared the United States to be in a continuous open-ended state of emergency since Congress enacted the National Emergencies Act in to regulate such declarations.
The Watergate scandal left such an impression on the national and international consciousness that many scandals since then have been labeled with the suffix " -gate ". Disgust with the revelations about Watergate, the Republican Party, and Nixon strongly affected results of the November Senate and House elections , which took place three months after Nixon's resignation.
- Pour cause de fin de bail (French Edition)!
- What was Watergate? Here are 14 facts that explain everything.
- Water Gate at the Watergate Complex;
The Democrats gained five seats in the Senate and forty-nine in the House the newcomers were nicknamed " Watergate Babies ". Congress passed legislation that changed campaign financing , to amend the Freedom of Information Act , as well as to require financial disclosures by key government officials via the Ethics in Government Act. Other types of disclosures, such as releasing recent income tax forms, became expected, though not legally required. Presidents since Franklin D. Roosevelt had recorded many of their conversations but the practice purportedly ended after Watergate.
Ford's pardon of Nixon played a major role in his defeat in the presidential election against Jimmy Carter. In , Nixon arranged an interview with British journalist David Frost in the hopes of improving his legacy. Based on a previous interview in ,  he believed that Frost would be an easy interviewer and was taken aback by Frost's incisive questions. The interview displayed the entire scandal to the American people, and Nixon formally apologized, but his legacy remained tarnished.
In the aftermath of Watergate, " follow the money " became part of the American lexicon and is widely believed to have been uttered by Mark Felt to Woodward and Bernstein. The phrase was never used in the book All the President's Men and did not become associated with it until the movie of the same name was released in The parking garage where Woodward and Felt met in Rosslyn still stands.
Its significance was noted by Arlington County with a historical marker in Despite the enormous impact of the Watergate scandal, the purpose of the break-in of the DNC offices has never been conclusively established. Records from the United States v. Liddy trial, made public in , showed that four of the five burglars testified that they were told the campaign operation hoped to find evidence that linked Cuban funding to Democratic campaigns. Baldwin III's list of targets that was released in Anthony Lukas of the New York Times , who had concluded that the committee was seeking to find evidence linking the Democrats to prostitution, as it was alleged that Oliver's office had been used to arrange such meetings.
However, Nichter acknowledged that Woodward and Bernstein's theory of O'Brien as the target could not be debunked unless information was released about what Baldwin heard in his bugging of conversations. In , O'Brien was appointed by Vice President Hubert Humphrey to serve as the national director of Humphrey's presidential campaign and, separately, by Howard Hughes to serve as Hughes' public-policy lobbyist in Washington. O'Brien was elected national chairman of the DNC in and In late , the president's brother, Donald Nixon , was collecting intelligence for his brother at the time and asked John H.
Meier , an adviser to Howard Hughes, about O'Brien. The loan's existence surfaced during the presidential election campaign, embarrassing Richard Nixon and becoming a political liability. According to author Donald M. Bartlett, Richard Nixon would do whatever was necessary to prevent another family embarrassment. Hughes wanted Donald Nixon and Meier involved but Nixon opposed this. Meier told Donald that he was sure the Democrats would win the election because they had considerable information on Richard Nixon's illicit dealings with Hughes that had never been released, and that it resided with Larry O'Brien.
James F. Neal , who prosecuted the Watergate 7, did not believe Nixon had ordered the break-in because of Nixon's surprised reaction when he was told about it. Chinese then-Premier Zhou Enlai said in October that the scandal did not affect the relations between China and the United States. He further said, "Do Americans really want to go isolationist? In the two world wars , the Americans came [in] very late, but all the same, they did come in.
They haven't been isolationist in practice. Tanaka further said, "The pivotal role of the United States has not changed, so this internal affair will not be permitted to have an effect. It was this attitude, I think, that rescued American democracy. Lee said further that the United States "makes the future of this peace in Indonesia an extremely bleak one with grave consequence for the contiguous states".
Lee then blamed the scandal for economic inflation in Singapore because the Singapore dollar was pegged to the United States dollar at the time, assuming the U. In June , when Chairman Leonid Brezhnev arrived in the United States to have a one-week meeting with Nixon,  Brezhnev told the press, "I do not intend to refer to that matter—[the Watergate].
It would be completely indecent for me to refer to it. My attitude toward Mr. Nixon is of very great respect. Nixon has lost or gained any influence because of the affair. Heath did not publicly display his anger, with aides saying that he was unconcerned about having been bugged at the White House.
According to officials, Heath commonly had notes taken of his public discussions with Nixon so a recording would not have bothered him. However, officials privately said that if private talks with Nixon were bugged, then Heath would be outraged. Even so, Heath was privately outraged over being taped without his prior knowledge.
McGoff, said in January that the media overemphasized the scandal, though he called it "an important issue", overshadowing more serious topics, like a declining economy and an energy crisis. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For the buildings, see Watergate complex. For other uses, see Watergate disambiguation. Political scandal that occurred in the United States in the s. For a chronological guide to this subject, see Timeline of the Watergate scandal.
Watergate complex. Nixon Resignation speech Inauguration of Gerald Ford. Watergate burglars.
Watergate Fast Facts - CNN
McCord Jr. Frank Sturgis. White House. Haldeman E. Howard Hunt Egil Krogh G. Gordon Liddy Gordon C. Strachan Rose Mary Woods. Intelligence community. Mark Felt " Deep Throat " L. Rodino U. Senate Watergate Committee Impeachment process. Frank Wills security guard James F. This section needs additional citations for verification.
Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Nixon White House tapes. Bradford Cook. Main article: Saturday Night Massacre. See also: Impeachment process of Richard Nixon. Richard Nixon's resignation speech. Resignation speech of President Richard Nixon , delivered August 8, For the nationally televised address from the Oval Office, see Richard Nixon's resignation speech. Further information: Inauguration of Gerald Ford. Further information: Pardon of Richard Nixon.
The Nixon Pardon. June 16, Retrieved May 13, Senator , et. Spring Impeachment Seminar. Archived from the original on March 3, The New York Times. Retrieved September 30, Watergate: chronology of a crisis. Washington D. This book is volume one of a two-volume set. June 23, Retrieved January 17, Apple, Jr. The Watergate hearings: break-in and cover-up; proceedings. New York: Viking Press. The White House Transcripts. This direction was an obstruction of justice. White, Theodore Harold New York: Atheneum Publishers. The accounts of all three coincide. Goldwater averred that there were not more than fifteen votes left in his support in the Senate.
Clair learned of the existence of this tape and they were convinced that it would guarantee Nixon's impeachment in the House of Representatives and conviction in the Senate. New York: Random House. New York: Columbia University Press, Leon Friedman and William F. Levantrosser, eds.